Tom Van Flandern
(reprinted from Meta Research Bulletin of
We begin with the gravity model previously discussed at length in these pages. [] In it, the apple falls
from the tree because an effectively universal flux of ultra-small, ultra-fast
gravitons bombards all matter from all directions in space at all times; but
some of that flux is partially blocked by the Earth, resulting in a net graviton
wind blowing down toward the Earth. See Figure 1. Among the many effects of
these gravitons, the "ocean" of "elysons" that comprise the effectively
universal light-carrying medium we call "elysium" is made denser near all large
masses by the downward pressure of graviton winds. That greater density of the
optical medium in which light propagates (equivalent to the gravitational
potential field) produces the relativistic effects of light-bending,
gravitational redshift, and Shapiro delay via the mechanism of refraction. All
this takes place in flat space, with the refraction represented by the same math
as the Riemann curvature tensor of general relativity (GR).
Moreover, change is measured by a
universal time, although motion and potential do slow the rate at which
electromagnetic-phenomena-based clocks tick. GR remains valid, although its
"geometric" physical interpretation is replaced by the "field" interpretation.
And special relativity (SR) is falsified in favor of Lorentzian relativity (LR)
based on the same Lorentz transformations, but without a speed-of-light
universal speed limit.
1. An object on or near the left side of a mass will experience a net push
toward that mass because arriving gravitons from the right that would have hit
the object are sometimes blocked by the mass; whereas arriving gravitons from
the left are unobstructed. This produces a net graviton wind through the object
directed toward the center of the mass.
This light-carrying (elysium) medium and this graviton medium operate on all
observable scales from galaxy super-clusters down to the smallest quantum
particles. These concepts originally arose from a cosmology (the "Meta Model")
deduced entirely from first principles without assumptions of a physical nature,
having many other interesting implications. [] It does not seem likely that yet another
medium would exist and operate on the quantum scale to explain electricity and
magnetism, nor likely that this additional medium would exist but have no
detectable influences on the graviton medium or on elysium. However, it does
seem likely that the behavior of elysium and gravitons would be drastically
different at quantum scales than at laboratory or astrophysical scales because
of the scale difference.
The Meta Model (MM) has implications for the quantum world, but stops short of
attempting to model electricity and magnetism or the structure of matter itself
(especially protons, neutrons, and electrons). In the present article, we plunge
deeper into the problem, always trying to work deductively to assure a
reasonable degree of uniqueness.
First, we need to consider the implications of gravitational shielding – a
phenomenon of matter so dense that the normal flux of gravitons cannot easily
penetrate it. This is one of the new properties of gravity implied by MM and
possibly detected observationally in the Lageos satellites. See Figure 2.
Surely, if any known matter might be dense enough to absorb a significant
fraction of all gravitons passing through, the interiors of quantum particles
such as protons would qualify. Protons ought to be denser than any larger body
made up mainly of protons and neutrons because the larger body would have the
density of protons and neutrons (presumably similar to one another) averaged
together with the density of some "empty" space.
Figure 2. Shadowing (upper half):
Matter in each body shadows the other from some impacts from the isotropic flux
of gravitons surrounding everything (not shown), resulting in a net push toward
one another. Shielding (lower half): A body is so large and dense that no
gravitons can reach parts of its interior, resulting in a lesser
shadowing or force on other bodies than it would have if part of its mass were
The point here is that gravitational shielding ought to be a significant force
at some scale. Perhaps the main ingredients of atoms are the right scale,
thereby making particles at that scale appear special. Larger particles would
behave more classically with negligible shielding, and much smaller particles
would perhaps be unable to do what ordinary matter appears to do: hold
significant amounts of elysium near themselves in an extended atmosphere. When
the density of matter becomes great enough that elysium particles (elysons) can
no longer flow freely through them, we would expect to see changes in behavior.
When the density is great enough that gravitons can no longer flow freely
through, we would expect to see another type of change in properties.
If the efficiency of absorption of gravitons by, e.g., protons is quite high,
then the strength of the inverse square force generated in the immediate
vicinity would be very much greater than for ordinary matter, where the
absorption efficiency is low. So estimates of the strength of gravitational
force for protons based on a Newtonian force law could be incorrect by an
indefinitely great amount. An immediate corollary of the intense inverse-square
field produced by graviton absorption by protons is its effect on elysium. Near
ordinary matter, the density of elysium gets compacted by the gravitational
field, with its density correlated with gravitational potential. The same would
be true near protons except that, because the field is so much more intense, the
compaction of the local elysium would likewise be extreme.
In other words, quantum particles should be surrounded by an extended atmosphere
with a very high number density of elysons. Now imagine what would happen if two
protons tried to approach one another. The inverse square force of attraction,
produced when protons shadow each other from graviton impacts from the
directions toward other protons, would be strong because of the high efficiency
of graviton absorption. But the highly compressed elysium atmospheres of each
proton would operate like an elastic spring, overcoming the force of attraction
and producing an apparent force of repulsion for any protons trying to approach
one another. All protons would appear to repel one another because of the
spring-like character of their ultra-dense elysium envelopes. This is apparently
the property we describe as "positive charge". As such, this would be the main
reason why electrostatic forces are so much stronger than computed gravitational
forces operating within atoms. The elysium atmospheres of two approaching
protons resist further compression with a force stronger than the gravitational
force between them.
Once we have this basic starting point, we can see that, if protons nonetheless
are crushed together despite the resistance of their elysium atmospheres, there
will come a point when the two elysium envelopes will merge and become one
envelope around two protons. Then the protons will no longer repel one another.
This immediately explains the mystery of how protons can always repel, yet
peaceably co-exist in close proximity in the nuclei of atoms. Such entities
would manifest both wave and particle properties because of their high-density,
spongy atmospheres and their “solid” cores (explaining the wave-particle duality
property). So far, this picture is robust in explaining the gross qualitative
properties of protons observed in experiments.
The mass and collisional cross-section of protons are measured
statistically. However, the charge-to-mass ration can be measured for individual
protons. We expect that the size and density of the entrained elysium atmosphere
of a proton would grow in direct proportion to its mass. So in this evolving
picture, we would expect the charge-to-mass ratio to remain constant, or nearly
so, even if individual protons were to have a wide range of masses.
Figure 3. Lines of force for a
bar magnet with poles "N" (north) and "S" (south) are similar to streamlines of
flowing elysium around a moving charge.
Consider that when a charge moves, it is a tightly bound ball of denser elysium
moving through the normal elysium medium. If it moves in any oscillatory way or
with some characteristic amplitude, that would set off a disturbance in the
elysium – light waves or “photons”. While the charge is in motion, passing
elysium flows from the front face of the charge to its back face as it is pushed
out of the way of the advancing proton in front and rushes to fill the vacuum in
the proton's wake. Then the centers of the front and back faces of the proton
will appear to act like “poles”, with the streamlines of flowing elysium going
from pole to pole. See Figure 2.
Ordinary matter is too porous to detect or be influenced by flowing elysium.
However, the dense elysium atmospheres of other charges would be affected, and
the streamlines of flowing elysium would then represent lines of force. This is
a different force than the one that drives protons apart. It behaves the way we
expect of a magnetic field, and in fact creates lines of force very similar to
what a bar magnet creates. We therefore see a physical model for the origin of
If a number of charges flow in sequence, one has in effect a dipole
“magnet”. If another such dipole magnet is encountered, the poles (ends of the
flow) that are similar will repel because the streaming of the elysium tends to
separate them; and the poles that are opposite will attract so that the flow
pattern of one proceeds smoothly into the flow pattern of the other, and they
become in effect a single, longer dipole magnet. If a charge is set into motion
near a magnet, the moving charge creates its own dipole magnet. That either
reinforces or competes with the existing magnet. If the motion of the charge is
taken together with the existing magnet to define a plane, then the charge will
be forced to accelerate perpendicular to the plane until the streamlines of both
Figure 4. Model of a proton (left) with elysium atmosphere
dense enough to repel other protons, and an electron (right) with partial
elysium vacuum created by graviton emissions dense enough to repel other
nature of electrons is still far from a settled matter. But again using the
deductive methodology from what we already think we know about the Meta Model,
we note that ordinary matter is only ever-so-slightly imbalanced in that some
gravitons are absorbed while the overwhelming majority are scattered. This might
be regarded as a normal situation for "hard" substances such as protons. These
are quantum analogs of asteroids, moons, and rocky planets on the macroscopic
scale. But quantum scales might also contain "soft" substances analogous to gas
giant planets and stars that scatter less and radiate more. Such bodies would
retain much more of the heat deposited by gravitons and would heat up greatly,
becoming net graviton emitters.
all gravitons were scattered by a body, there would be no net force. But if the
slight absorption asymmetry producing gravity were a slight emission asymmetry
instead, the net force from the body would be repulsive instead of attractive.
That would produce the inverse effect on neighboring elysium compared to the
case for protons. The emission of gravitons would reduce the surrounding elysium
density producing an effective hole in the contiguous medium. As two such
“electron” bodies approached one another, they would repel because of the net
excess graviton flux between them (opposite of a graviton shadow). But if such a
negative-charge body approached a proton, the elysium atmosphere of the proton
and the elysium vacuum of the electron would try to combine and merge.
should electrons emit more gravitons than they absorb? Recall the heat problem
produced by gravitons. [,] As one looks at smaller and denser
quantum masses, one eventually reaches a point of density at which elysium can
no longer flow freely through that body. Then heat (graviton energy) will build
up in the interior, keeping the electron molten or gaseous, consistent with its
lack of a discernable collisional cross-section. This also means that reflected
gravitons will gain energy when they encounter the electron instead of losing
it. Reflecting gravitons with more energy is the physical equivalent of emitting
The same reasoning about mass applies here as applied to protons. The
charge-to-mass ratio will appear to be the same for each electron, even if the
bodies themselves have a wide range of masses. And just as protons radiate away
excess heat into the surrounding elysium, electrons would be trying to absorb
heat from the elysium-deficit surrounding them. This heat transfer balance
assures that protons will always decrease the net energy of incident gravitons
by the same amount that electrons increase that net energy. So heat transfer
makes the forces of attraction and repulsion the same in the statistical
average. It would otherwise be a coincidence that single protons and electrons
exerted opposite forces having the same magnitude.
Charge and mass appear quantized because the ratio of charge to mass is a
constant for single protons, and a different constant for electrons. Combining
two or more particles then always appears to yield integer multiples of that
basic charge and mass. In short, the nuclei of these particles may vary in size
and give rise to their particle-like properties. And the elysium atmospheres are
matched to particle size and give rise to their wave-like properties.
We note in passing that this model potentially solves
some mysteries on cosmological scales too. If the density of elysium varies on
large scales because of pressure or density waves passing through the visible,
large-scale universe, these might then be responsible for galaxies forming
preferentially in “walls" and avoiding "voids”. And it would tend to produce
quantized redshifts because most energy loss of light waves (through friction
with the graviton medium) would occur in the regions of denser elysium.
Moreover, graviton absorption into elysium would produce black body photon
emission to radiate away the heat. These continuous emissions from the elysium
may be what we observe as the microwave radiation.
T. Van Flandern (2003), "21st century gravity", MetaRes.Bull.
T. Van Flandern (1999), Dark Matter, Missing Planets and New Comets,
North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, chapters 1-5.
T. Van Flandern (2002), "Gravity", in Pushing Gravity, M. Edwards, ed.,
Apeiron, Montreal, 93-122.
V.J. Slabinski (2002), "Force, heat, and drag in a graviton model", in
Pushing Gravity, M. Edwards, ed., Apeiron, Montreal, 123-128.